Global Harmful Algal Blooms

Below GEOHAB publications presented by theme. A list by title is available here.    

Science Plan    Implementation Plan


 alt   alt


Upwelling Systems


Eutrophic Systems


Fjords and Coastal Embayments


Stratified Systems


Benthic Systems




GEOHAB Modelling


GEOHAB Synthesis

  • Special issue in Oceanography: International Cooperation on Harmful Algal Bloom Science

GEOHAB–The Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms Program: Motivation, Goals, and Legacy
Kudela, R.M., E. Berdalet, H. Enevoldsen, G. Pitcher, R. Raine, and E. Urban. 2017. GEOHAB–The Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms Program: Motivation, goals, and legacy. Oceanography 30(1):12–21,

Harmful Algal Blooms in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems: A GEOHAB Core Research Project
Pitcher, G.C., A.B. Jiménez, R.M. Kudela, and B. Reguera. 2017. Harmful algal blooms in eastern boundary upwelling systems: A GEOHAB Core Research Project. Oceanography 30(1):22–35,

Harmful Algal Blooms in Benthic Systems: Recent Progress and Future Research
Berdalet, E., P.A. Tester, M. Chinain, S. Fraga, R. Lemée, W. Litaker, A. Penna, G. Usup, M. Vila, and A. Zingone. 2017. Harmful algal blooms in benthic systems: Recent progress and future research. Oceanography 30(1):36–45,

Harmful Algal Blooms in Fjords, Coastal Embayments, and Stratified Systems: Recent Progress and Future Research
Berdalet, E., M. Montresor, B. Reguera, S. Roy, H. Yamazaki, A. Cembella, and R. Raine. 2017. Harmful algal blooms in fjords, coastal embayments, and stratified systems: Recent progress and future research. Oceanography 30(1):46–57,

Globally Changing Nutrient Loads and Harmful Algal Blooms: Recent Advances, New Paradigms, and Continuing Challenges
Glibert, P.M., and M.A. Burford. 2017. Globally changing nutrient loads and harmful algal blooms: Recent advances, new paradigms, and continuing challenges. Oceanography 30(1):58–69,

GlobalHAB: A New Program to Promote International Research, Observations, and Modeling of Harmful Algal Blooms in Aquatic Systems 
Berdalet, E., R. Kudela, E. Urban, H. Enevoldsen, N.S. Banas, E. Bresnan, M. Burford, K. Davidson, C.J. Gobler, B. Karlson, P.T. Lim, L. Mackenzie, M. Montresor, V.L. Trainer, G. Usup, and K. Yin. 2017. GlobalHAB: A new program to promote international research, observations, and modeling of harmful algal blooms in aquatic systems. Oceanography 30(1):70–81,




  • Ocean colour remote sensing and Harmful Algal Blooms: a rush of blood?
  • GEOHAB: Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, A Plan for Co-ordinated Scientific Research and Co-operation to Develop International Capabilities for Assessment, Prediction and Mitigation. Report from a Joint IOC / SCOR Workshop, Havreholm, Denmark,13 - 17 October 1998.
  • UNESCO monographs on oceanographic methodology: Real-time Coastal Observing Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms: Theory, Instrumentation and Modelling. HABWatch Monograph from UNESCO Publishing. Edited by Marcel Babin, Collin Roesler and John Cullen. The proliferation of harmful phytoplankton in marine ecosystems can cause massive fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, impact local and regional economies and dramatically affect ecological balance. Real-time observations are essential for effective short-term operational forecasting, but observation and modelling systems are still being developed. This volume offers guidance for developing real-time and near real-time sensing systems for observing and predicting plankton dynamics, including harmful algal blooms, in coastal waters. It explains the underlying theory and discusses current directions in research and monitoring in looking at instrumentation and modelling. Topics treated include: coastal ecosystems and dynamics of harmful algal blooms; theory and practical applications of in situ and remotely sensed optical detection of microalgal distributions and composition; theory and practical applications of in situ biological and chemical sensors for targeted species and toxin detection; integrated observing systems and platforms for detection; diagnostic and predictive modelling of ecosystems and harmful algal blooms, including data assimilation techniques; observational needs for the public and government; and future directions for research and operations. This anthology should inform the work of researchers and environmental monitors as well as teachers and trainers concerned with understanding the causes, predicting the occurrences and mitigating the effects of harmful algal blooms in marine ecosystems.








 List of papers published based on GEOHAB endorsed research (download as End-note zip file)





 GEOHAB PIECHART_papers_end2011

Special GEOHAB issue of the Elsevier Journal 'Harmful Algae' entitled ‘HABs and Eutrophication’. 


Available at Science Direct at     


List of Contents also at 




Special issue of 'Oceanography', Volume 18, No. 2 on the comparative approach to HAB research and GEOHAB .



The individual articles may be downloaded at no charge (just open the individual article and save to your computer). You can also save the cover graphic (right-click and save it to your computer).  


Reports of the ICES-IOC-SCOR Working Group on Implementation of GEOHAB in the Baltic:  




  1. Helsinki 2007


  2. Helsinki 2004 


  3. Stockholm 2002 
  4. Dublin 2001
  5. Cooperative Plan
  6. Invitation to Participate

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